The Leading Oil Paintings Supplier in China

Art in Bulk is a well reputed oil paintings supplier in Xiamen, China. We can supply well known oil painting on canvas at the best price. We now have qualified artists of various painting subjects and also art styles to do famous painting reproduction.

We have over 200 talented artists working hard together and have created hundreds of thousands of paintings for largest art companies, galleries, online art stores, hotels, interior design firms, museums, embassies…

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star wars panel art

Star Wars is actually a cultural phenomenon which has lasted dozens of years and also has millions of supporters around the world. The epic stories and figures are part of a sci-fi mythos containing achieved legendary status. If you have been a fan, or perhaps you are seeking a gift for someone special, then is the most perfect place to go shopping. Their collection of canvas paintings features every person’s superheroes, vessels, and a lot more, so in case you want Darth Vader hanging on top of your family room wall, or else you want to add Yoda to your workspace, you can find anything that you require. will be correct website to get star wars artworks . Our star wars works of art also come in multiple size ranges, colour combinations, and styles. Consumers can readily pick the a lot of trendy design for their sleeping quarters, lounge room, dining area, cooking area, restroom, place, and business office too. You’ll be able to hang these star wars paintings on your wall behind the bed or behind the bedroom inside your bedroom. You with thankful to find out that these star war canvas selections are surprisingly easy to hang with their modern style finish.

The star war collection is amongst the leading films on this whole world; it collected lots of hearts across the world. The combating spaceships, inter-family feuds, sci-fi explosions, and quirky alien figures; there are numerous wonderful things to understand the star war selection. Most likely, the awesomeness of this idea may not be indicated in words and phrases; this is why we generate hand-painted star wars canvas art pieces for lovers.

The web outlets at present contain a lot of multiple piece paintings, but yet nothing compares to the amazing appeal of star wars canvas artwork in the eyes of Star wars lovers. Definitely, it’s really a must-have décor object for admirers. They aren’t limited by a few models; you can find lot many, and every one of these creates a wonderful impact in the fans’ eyes.

The Star Wars picture of your final choice is covered in a tough frame together with other supplies used in the entire product have premium quality. They are available in a defensive layer against sun or water damage and mold. Moreover, you never need an excessive amount of effort to maintain it in shape. The product or service is shown to go on for an extended period of time beneath normal conditions. You can buy several different Star Wars visuals all of which are shown in this websotre with certain information. You’re able to search through each and every group to find other things that can likely match your needs.

If you are after a selection of Star Wars ever since its first part, then perhaps you’re an devoted fan of a few roles in the story. Why don’t you then possess a canvas paintings which has your stars which means that you’d always have their particular inspirations to find to? This kind of product is exclusively generated for you! It can certainly generate a different kind of feeling in home since it lures the viewer’s curiosity. Also you can have it associated by some other ornaments with the exact same idea. It’s quite simple to put in. The associated fee is reasonable. Nevertheless it features a terrific value to your office or house.

star wars black and white posters

A way toPaint a Lovely looking Design on a Black Canvas Baggage

If you’re creative but you like to style your canvas tote bags, starting your hands with a little painting isn’t a dreadful idea whatsoever. You fully understand we are all for using our visualization and also our interests to make our canvas tote bags into veritable pieces of art.

The 1st step in the operation is to try to decide your design. Pick out design that features a decent outside line such as a comic character or maybe a set of letters. My favorite design was a list of three kitties somewhere accompanied by a mouse on the back. Once you have decided your design, sketch or locate the outside lines of the design on a black colored canvas with a graphite or disappearing yellow/white sewing pencil.

Paint inside the lines with gesso or maybe a white fabric base paint. Allow this layer of paint to dry entirely ahead of moving forward. Each gesso and fabric base paint take more time to dry than acrylic paint because of their thickness. The gesso or fabric base paint stiffens and produces a covering that should accept a layer of shaded paint by employing only 1 layer. You will have to paint nearly ten layers of light shaded paint on dark canvas to get the lightness of the paint to be noticed.

Right after the gesso or white fabric base paint is dry, make the inside lines of your design. Colouring every single area along with the appropriate coloured acrylic or simply fabric paint. Allow the paint to dry completely before moving forward.

Add whatever detail you prefer at this time including shading, little forms such as dots, circles, flowers and so forth. Shake glitters over the wet paint to add some other dimension if you are looking for. After all smaller designs and also glitter are applied, outline each and every area by means of black paint. Use a liner brush to take on the detailing. A liner brush supports the paint longer and creates a prolonged line of paint than the small round brush.

Heat set the pattern following the final drying. Place a brown piece of wrapping paper over the design area. Turn on your iron as well as heat on a cotton setting. Put the hot iron in the upper left hand corner of the packaging paper and maintain in place for Just a few seconds. Move the iron to the right one iron’s width and repeat. Go on shifting the iron and heating up the art work until the overall spot has been heat set. Get rid of the brown wrapping paper and you are ready to go.

Useful resource:

New Amazing Knife Works by Franoise Nielly

Its abstract with funky colours. That’s my first impressions on this piece of work. It reveals dark areas in which more dark shades are, and light-weight in which less heavy shades are. In my opinion its too colorful, however. I prefer just a few colours. Alternatively, just dark colours.

In their individual way, Francoise Nielly paints a persons experience in every one of his artwork. And she paints it over and over once more, with slashes of fresh paint over their encounter. Occasions of existence that come up from her works of art are delivered coming from a clinch with all the material. Coloration is introduced just like a projectile.

She has discovered the numerous elements of “impression” all her lifestyle, via artwork, virtual, roughs, photography and illustrations, pc made cartoon images. It can be very clear given that artwork is her course and her desire.

Francoise Nielly day-to-day lives inside a arena of pictures.

Because you can see the brush strokes, and the rough colour blocks, the piece of work looks rough textured. Its various to numerous performers who sleek out their clean cerebral vascular accidents, and who mix their colors. I love the abstract outcome it presents.

Francoise Nielly’s piece of art is expressive, displaying a brute pressure, an amazing crucial vitality. knife and Oil blend shape her pictures coming from a materials that may be , as well, biting and incisive, sensual and carnal. Regardless of whether she paints our body or portraits, the designer requires a threat : her piece of art is erotic, her shades free of charge,surprising and exuberant, even incredible, the lower of her blade incisive, her colour pallet stunning.

She receives her experience of construction and space from her daddy, who had been an designer. Being raised inside the To the south of France where by she resided among Saint and Cannes-Tropez, is rarely far away from the lighting, the hue sensation along with the ambiance that permeates the To the south of France. This can be along with her reports together with her research on the Beaux artistry and Ornamental Artistry, and her spontaneity and also of get together.

Commission Portrait in Francoise Nielly Style

Francoise Nielly color pallet

Francoise Nielly is surely an artist described as advanced and sophisticated ideas showing delightful and very important energy and strength.

Francoise draws lines to find charm, feelings, while focusing of memories. Every portrait symbolizes a feeling of happiness and misery. When we finally explore these types of sensuous, expressive and overpowering drawing, we understand that concentration can move sincerely in a look, in the body language, in a position that specifies francoise nielly background information ones methods for being. The shades are the thing that makes Nielly’s work so valid and natural which is not possible not to adore her ideas. A great number of would be the inspirations, which usually show up inside of such sensibility, and plenty of perhaps be the definitions that happens to be expressed. ?Have you told yourselves how important it can be to experience tones? Or simply thought of how important it really is to manage this type of styles?

Art by creator Franoise Nielly use a noticeable depth that originate right from every composition. Having mastered palette knife art solutions, the painter uses thick strokes of oil on canvas combine a clear abstraction in to these figurative portraits. The artworks, which happen to be based off of very simple black or white photographs, feature intensive light, shadow, depth, and energetic neon color styles. In accordance with her resource on Behance, Nielly carries a risk: her painting is sexual, her color styles free, exuberant, shocking, even mind-blowing, the cut of her knife incisive, her color choice pallete beautiful.

Nielly displays a protective exploration in direction of feel and becomes an intuitive and wild target of expression. Any time you close your eyes, you wouldn’t normally imagine a face, which contains colors, however if you simply give it some thought strongly, everything obtains a form through our goals. The most stressed soul can get colors, which might be concealed but always alive. A lot of people feel as if in a portrait, there’s always a harmony that goes out, however in my opinion, every definition is imprinted in their face. Eyes uncover sins and fervour, a grin reveals joy or just a decisive lie, and brilliant colors represent options without excessive movement.

In Francoise Nielly’s Art, she doesn’t use any modern technology and employs only oil along with palette knife. The shades are published roughly on the canvas and turn into a very solid work. Her portraits encapsulate potency of color as a appealing way of experiencing life. The conception and form are simply just beginning factors.

Don’t you love Francoise Nielly’s works of art? Do you wish to purchase a portrait painting created by this artist? I am not sure if Francoise take commission job? But if she do, i bet the cost should be very expensive as most of her artworks sell $10,000 to $30,000. Then, basically, it is almost unlikely to let Francoise Nielly paint your portrait, though, guess what, our talented artists can! We can paint your image exactly like Francoise Nielly do!

In the way, Francoise Nielly gives our face in every of his art pieces. And then she paints it all the time, with slashes of paint upon their face. Moments of life that arise from her artworks are put together from a clinch with the canvas. Color choice is set in motion just like a projectile.

Peggy Gale and Lisa Steele, eds., Video re/View

Outpost Art

The (Best) Source for Critical Writings on Canadian Artists’ Video, Toronto: Art Metropole, V Tape, 1996, 492 pp., ill. b. & w.

Outpost Art customer reviews

Peggy Gale and Lisa Steele, two important figures in Canada’s English-speaking video milieu, bring together in their recent anthology, Video re/View, forty-nine articles, essays and documents on a broad range of topics from the first quarter century of writings on “artists’ video in Canada.”

Work after work after work…

For structure, the anthologists choose to string the writings in seven (non-linear, achronological) “clusters”; each centres loosely on one (or more) theme(s) or genre. Several gems appear: the critic George Elliott’s 1953 warning to artists on the pitfalls of using television as a medium for disseminating their works; a trenchant but brief 1980 analysis of the socio-cultural consequences of southern television programming for the Inuit by John Greyson and Lisa Steele; an excerpt from Robert Forget’s 1970 proposal for Montreal’s celebrated Videographe; and General Idea’s spirited 1978 interview on the means to determining an audience vocabulary.

Video re/View constitutes an intelligent polyphony of diverse theoretical positions, which in turn presupposes a fairly advanced grasp of the contemporary art world. With so much rare material listed in its extensive bibliography (arranged by author’s name), why reprint long passages by Innis and McLuhan that are easily found elsewhere or emphasize readily-accessible writings from the last ten years? Nevertheless, Video re/View is a truly welcome, competent addition to the quickly-accumulating store of books and anthologies on “artists’ video” in Canada and abroad. G. Z.

Entering The Forest Primeval

Entering The Forest Primeval: New and Improved, an installation developed in residency by Atlanta sculptor Doug Fick, one is immediately aware of a figure on the floor. It is not a human form but a container for one, an amorphous chemical-protection suit made of yellow plastic with sealed gloves, boots and a hood with a transparent window through which one sees a stuffing of dead leaves. This “figure” lies, legs and arms askew, facing the back wall. The space is lit by slides, microphotographs of various species of wood stained red throwing cellular structure into relief, projected onto the full surface of this wall. The opening leading to the adjoining room is filled with a curtain of heavy orange PVC heat-formed over a tree trunk so that it bears an impression of bark pattern and curvature. This process is repeated so that vertical impressions form an undulating curtain-wall-forest. A seam allows passage to an antechamber where eyes adjust to light provided by “black light” fixtures suspended above what appears to be a dome tent. This seemingly ubiquitous type of shelter is glowing green. Bent poles constitute the skeleton whose triangular spaces are filled with wood veneer which fluoresces under the black light (caused by a naturally occurring mineral deposit in the wood).

The Economy of the Imaginary

On this simplified path one moves into the exhibition experiencing elements for the first time, in a kind of innocence. We do not know what will come next but each experience gradually conditions the last. On turning to leave, the experience is quite different. One has an inkling of a whole, a desire to pull things together, to create a closure by building a narrative, imposing a metaphorical or allegorical order, somehow creating a common ground between the fragments. The intentionality of Fick’s material transformations and choices of imagery, where nothing seems accidental, draws an intensity of focus. This focus creates a desire for a similar rigour of interpretation, but the elements do not fall into place as easily as we would wish. The narrative remains fractured and meaning diffuses in a general air of disturbance.

In our daily experience we rely on our senses to collect information, interpreting from within the narrow limits of what we can see, hear, smell, etc. Technology extends this realm allowing us to perceive, separate and name that which is beyond the reach of our senses. A microscopic sample is dyed so that we can see its structure, the process transforming the substance (the microphotographs). Light of a specific wavelength is isolated and used to expose a material not otherwise visible to the eye (the fluorescent tent). Transformation, turning one form of energy into another or using one chemical substance to mark another, is a fundamental technique of science bringing the range of the invisible into the spectrum of the quantifible where elements can be identified and made useful. This most basic techne also brings an awareness that our senses are no longer adequate for the world in which we live. The glowing green of the tent is reminiscent of the stereotypical sign for radioactivity, a range of energy which, like many invisible dangers (chemicals, energy, bacteria, etc.) our senses simply cannot detect. In a world without technology these dangers would remain unnamable. Have we exchanged one form of alienation in relation to nature for another (the unknown for the undetectable)?

In mimicking this technological epistemology and technique, Fick replicates a common artistic strategy of material transformation which focuses this work on how we perceive and order things. There is a dialogue between the invisible, the made-visible and transformed. We are made aware of the infinite gradation between the unknown and the known, casting doubt on the iceberg-tip of the supposedly verifiable. Everything is in a state of self-contradiction in terms of representation. No object in this mise-en-scene is as it should be. The figure is made of dead vegetation sealed in a plastic skin. The forest, in an inside-out metonymy, is a rubbery serial impression in orange plastic, imitating the process of mass-production. The dysfunctional tent, on the other hand, is made of real wood.

Programa de residencia para artistas en Los Angeles

If transformation for scientific purposes serves to clarify identification then these sculptural transformations question our perception of the object. Signification is somehow separated from physical matter. Imagine this exhibition if Fick had brought a real tent and trees into the gallery or if the elements were sincere and skillful imitations of that which they were supposed to represent. Neither of these possibilities would fulfill Fick. These works are neither “true” things nor props. They have been pushed into some other order. Traditional methods have been used in effecting transformations which take these objects out of the range of the everyday and makes them into objects of wonder – not some magical state but rather a state where the factors that make them perceptible and comprehensible, which bring them into the “knowable,” are pushed onto the surface. Neither completely “things” nor representations, they propose the question what constitutes a “thing”?

In Fick’s sculpture the industrial processes of molds and matrices reinforce their “madeness.” The transformation emphasizes our separateness from nature or essence and the futility of simple representation. Our relationship to any “real” or Arcadian “nature” is defined by the technology of “seeing” and making over that which we have mastery. Nature is only real to us under the light we can cast on it. The installation as a whole reproduces the same process of distancing from the “original” evident in each sculptural component, questioning how we embody and represent nature and probing the wavering parameters of perception and experience. The deliberateness of Fick’s transformations creates a complex engagement with the work which is quite rare. Too often, in contemporary practice, material choices are off-hand, perhaps clever or startling but without depth or rigour. In this work there is a seriousness of making which goes beyond stylistic exoticism to throw some light on the nature of experience.

What is there to say?

What is there to say?

Does it make a difference if you are not seen, but rather a projection which sees and speaks and hears in your place?

Is the “I” saying “Me” to “It-You” (or its reflection)?


Is it that the one who stands in your place is not free to go where they wish, or that even as you move them “freely” in their mirrored infinity theater that there are borders?

Is it that they can see their wires but know not where they lead?

[Los Angeles] Temporary Services in LA

And what is public space when it is virtual, experienced as an image?

Is it that in the space of the art exhibition there is also a meeting of those who see but are not seen and those who learn to play the game with their projections?

I learned in 1991 that the MBone (a virtual layer on the Internet) had been invented, making it possible to transmit “real-time” video and audio. A networked metaphor would seem to offer a new genre of complexity — were it not for the fact that “here” and “there,” “I” and “you,” and “mine” and “yours” have always been bones in the skeleton of our sense-selves and in our ideologies. I found myself thinking about creating a telematic videoconference among three ventriloquist dolls to ask the question: Could having a voice, having a “body” in this tele-space, create new ground for discovering the metaphors of long-distance impersonation?

In one exhibition space there is a labyrinthine construction. Its inner walls are mirrored. Inside of this space, there are three robot-puppet ventriloquist dolls. In three other locations are darkened spaces, each with a place to sit, a small table with a special controller-interface (an attache case containing a joystick and a microphone), and upon the facing wall a large projected video image showing their robot’s vision — effectively, computer controlled “video-telephones.”

Each robot has a video camera for “sight,” microphones for “hearing.” Each robot is connected, remotely, to one of the other spaces (anywhere on the Mbone). In these other locations, a viewer may see (via the video projection) and hear what the robot sees and hears, can maneuver it with a joystick, while the voice of the remote viewer is transmitted back to the robot, that speaks (like the doll of a ventriloquist) the words of that person. It is then possible for three people to communicate with each other in the hall of mirrors via their respectively controlled robots. Viewers in the public/gallery space with the robots can see over the walls, allowing them to talk with people at the connected distant locations via the robots. Participants are inevitably pressed to regard these questions:

“Which one is me?”

“Am I talking to you or to myself?”

“Am I moving towards or away from the mirror?”

“What are the limits of this space?”

“Am I having any effect on what is happening?”

Through this work, I want to expand my continuing investigations into the sphere of public communications, emptying the work of manifest “narrative” in such a way as to create a form which in itself offers a critique of idealized communication, and yet that induces audiences to orient their own positions in direct relation to “presence,” “otherness,” “media” and “communication.” It was my goal to generate firsthand experiences which could provide grounding for individuals in relation to these so-called “disembodied” forms, and to offer metaphors emerging from my own experiences working within the “public spaces” of the Internet.

Virtual museums development

In the initial stages of virtual museums development, on-line activity has primarily consisted of extending and modifying established forms of artistic and museological networking, presentation and distribution. In a few cases, issues surrounding the changing relationships enabled by interactive technologies are being addressed and worked through. Driven by both utopian hopes for cultural democracy, and existing expectations and needs, artistic and museological activity on the Internet could more fully engage with, and be transformed by, interactive technology. But for such activity to occur and thrive, more practical provisions must develop. Computer networks should be designed, for example, to facilitate the rapid delivery of multimedia material, increase the capacity for information storage and processing, and develop compatible programs and standards. Resistance to online activity by artworld enthusiasts must also be examined. Many dismiss the virtual museum on the basis of principles stemming from high modernism and liberal humanism in which art is constituted as a repository for the good, the ethical and the creative in order to resist the technologically-driven ravages of modernity. Moreover, systems of cataloguing, search and retrieval need to be designed to navigate the relatively boundless quantities and forms of information available through computerized networks without reinforcing the limits of established disciplinary and institutional biases. Most importantly, there needs to be an ongoing examination of the virtual museum’s sociocultural implications. For example, how will emerging forms of interactivity affect issues surrounding access, identity, community, property, governance and the creation and organization of knowledge?

As the virtual museum emerges, it will no doubt inflect existing forms of museo-logical and artistic practices whose primary locus is rooted in the discursive organization of objects in physical exhibition spaces. The Internet’s communication and information gathering capacities, and the ability to bypass geographically determined boundaries could reconfigure our current conceptions of museum collections and artistic spaces previously shaped by the limits of strict disciplinary, institutional, organizational and perceptual categories.  In the virtual museum more flexible modes are emerging to facilitate intellectually diverse forms of knowledge that can consider the multidimensional complexity of socio-cultural, political and economic issues.

While these potentials are speculative, at present the Internet’s virtual museum is emerging as an expanded, heterogeneous instance of the museum without walls. Interactivity, a primary organizing principle of the virtual museum, is constituted as a social relationship which shapes the reflexive ties between art, new media and cultural change. It is a mode of communication enhanced by technology, is used in rhetoric to legitimate the interests of corporations, and configures knowledge as a collection of dynamic and interrelated linkages. Moreover, interactivity is a political activity linking technological change to monopoly practices as well as a method through which to identify and create conditions for socially compelling expression and agency. And finally, in the interface between public and private sector institutions there is the controversial challenge of negotiating these ever-mutating boundaries to bias cultural access over monopolizing interests, and social responsibility over short-term profits.

Artistic and museological activities

On the Net, artistic and museological activities variously engage with the circumstances surrounding interactivity. In some cases, established configurations are strengthened and extended. For example, World Wide Web home pages offer new channels through which individual works, curated exhibitions, museum services, history and contents of collections can be promoted. Web pages can address existing and potential audiences as well as inform educators and researchers. Because it offers a more direct and efficient system of feedback, the Internet can supplement existing forms of art criticism, curatorial presentation and interpretation. Aesthetic judgment, once the purview of a few experts who advised of artistic worthiness, can be expanded to allow for new forms of response. For artists and their groups, the home page is a practical and accessible forum through which to gain recognition formerly reserved for those with the economic resources, cultural connections and publicity savvy. As an information space, home pages are infinitely revisable, and can be cheaply and extensively circulated. Hypertextual and multimedia arrangements allow for more complex and flexibly organized knowledge encouraging cross referencing to other sites, networking and collaboration.

In addition to distributing and displaying work done off-line, some artists are using home pages to address issues related to the changing perceptual and organizational biases of interactive media. Artists and organizations predisposed to exploring the relationship between culture, new media and institutional conditions have made especially innovative use of the virtual museum, and may qualify as the rare and provocative instances of social and cultural agency that Innis valued. For example, Antonio Muntadas uses the Internet’s expanded information gathering capacities in his project The File Room established in 1994 as an on-line archive for the ongoing collection and discussion of censorship cases. For Internet users and art-world participants, censorship looms as an unwelcome means through which irreverent and unpopular communication is contained and disciplined. Muntadas’ archive provides an open and expanded library devoted to examining the techniques and terms used to suppress information and censor expression throughout history and across the globe. Because World Wide Web pages allow for the flexible categorization of knowledge, the easy retrieval of information, and can accommodate the contributions of anyone willing to participate, The File Room represents censorship as a multi-dimensional instrument of moral regulation that is historically and culturally contingent.

The network and information gathering potentials of the Internet frame Vitaly Komar and Alexander Melamid’s exploration of the techniques used by pollsters to discern public taste and opinion. In America’s Most Wanted, also initiated in 1994, the artists began surveying various publics about their preferences in painting. But rather than selling their results to marketers or politicians, Komar and Melamid used survey data to paint pictures as an interpretation of majority opinion. Unlike their marketing and political counterparts who promote their results as fixed truths, the artists use their data to discuss how dominant channels of opinion gathering and taste making are adverse to more socially democratic models of public consensus building based around discussion. Extrapolating on Komar and Melamid’s project, one can speculate about how increased data gathering capacities of computerized networks will further complicate the process of taste making and opinion gathering. Because of continuous feedback and forms of information collection and storage which are so expanded that they exceed human monitoring, it will be relatively impossible to construct certain and fixed notions of public desire and behavior. These capacities also raise questions about how personal information gathered in data banks will be regulated to balance the competing interests of individuals who will want some degree of control over how information about them will be used, and the lucrative needs of governments and marketers who will pay large sums for information about the tastes and opinions of their citizens and clients.

Perhaps the most contentious configuration of the virtual museum is emerging through the collaboration between public museums and private sector information and entertainment companies. One high profile example involves the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Digital Equipment Corporation, and the Quebec and Federal governments who have established the New Media Institute to develop applications for interactive media that are both marketable and will enable the museum to make its services and collection available on the Internet. Because the Canadian Museum of Civilization is responsible for the collection, presentation and distribution of national culture whose social value is priceless, all parties supporting the New Media Institute must be careful to negotiate licensing agreements and policy arrangements that will reward and encourage creators, and maintain forms of universal accessibility compatible with interactive technology while being careful not to discourage new sources of financial support and technological experimentation.

While public institutions enter into new and complex arrangements with the private sector, multinational corporations like Microsoft are planning for big business as usual acquiring the digital rights to as many well-known public and private cultural collections as possible. At present, Microsoft is modeling its virtual museum as a for-profit image distribution service along the lines of the Bettman Archive to which it recently bought the digital rights. Consisting of the United Press International’s holdings and the collections of its founder Otto Bettman, the picture service was the largest and most profitable of its time. Known for its indexing system, speedy delivery service and intensive marketing, the company was a favorite source for The Book of the Month Club, Life and Look magazines. (7) Gates hopes to extend Bettman’s empire to cater not only to the needs of mass media professionals, but to the untapped potential of home computer users. Such attempts raise many critical concerns not only about universal accessibility, but also about the ethical repercussions of allowing multinational and private sector monopolies to reap huge profits from cultures whose meanings and value have been socially produced and publicly supported.